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UDC 008+930.85:069+39(4)
DOI: 10.12737/14526

Per Stromberg 1 ,  Alexandra V. Trotsenko 2
1  Telemark University College (Bo, Norway); PhD, Associate Professor; e-mail: per.stromberg@hit.no
2  Oles’ Honchar Dnepropetrovsk National University (Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine);  PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: slimm_82@mail.ru


The article discusses the development a special type of museums in Europe  –  open-air museums. Such institutions named «skansen» in honor of the first open-air museum, which opened in 1891 in Stockholm at the initiative of Arthur Hazelius. The five historical stages in the history of European skansens are offered to distinguish: 1) origin of the idea and the opening of the first skansen (up  to 1891); 2) the establishment of skansen (from 1891 until the First World War); 3) Inter-War Period (the period between the First and Second World Wars); 4) Post-war reconstruction (up  to about 1960); 5) Development of skansen as a scientific-research institution and tourism center (from 1960s until today). Each of the selected stage is characterized by its process of deepening and expansion of activity of skansens as special kind of museum establishments. Museums change according to the era and social requires. Skansen emerged in response to the disappearance of the traditional economic system and national culture under the influence of the processes of industrialization and globalization. Today skansen is the effective means of translation to new generations an appropriate national historical and cultural identity, traditional way of life of the people. Skansen (open-air museums) is important tool of intercultural and inter-civilizational dialogue. Such museums are also a means of communication, which able to withstand to many cliches and misconceptions imposed by the mass culture. Today the organization of open-air museums is one of the most promising and effective ways to preserve historical and cultural heritage. This type of museum has got status of «museum of the future». The article briefly discusses the most interesting and popular open-air museums as tourist destinations of the Nordic countries.

Keywords: skansen, open-air museum, stages of the development of European skansens.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 793 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 72.03(470/1/2)
DOI: 10.12737/14528

Oleg E. Afanasiev 1 ,  Valeria V. Volkhina 2
Russian State University of Tourism and Service (Moscow, Russia);
1  PhD (Dr.Sc.) in Geography; e-mail: dneprgeo@gmail.com;
2  student; e-mail: v.v.valkyrya@yandex.ru


The article deals with the concept, function and significance of ethnographic open-air museums – skansen. Such type of museum represents regional types of nature-use, and is important components of the tourism industry. Ethnic traditions of nature-use appeared as a result of long historical process formation and development of the Russia peoples. Skansens is the museum institutions, which allow to get acquainted with it, and in concentrated form contribute to disclose the characteristics of the regional mentality, differences in material culture. The article notes that the skansens are a specific kind of more comprehensive on composition group of open-air museums. Only a museum that represents characteristics, traditions and cultural components of a particular nation or region through specially organized exhibition of traditional architectural complexes in the open air on the basis of ethnicity is a skansen. All open-air museums have certain properties, perform appropriate roles and functions. They complete particular tasks, the main among which is the preservation of interesting authentic monuments and the creation of conditions for free access of the general public to the objects through their tourism use. Today in Russia there are more than 20 skansens. «Kizhi» and «Small Korely» are the largest. But the lack of a common point of view on the term «skansen» is reason for the absence of any statistics in this area. Therefore, determination the criteria and the development of a database of skansens are the urgent tasks for today. Article describes the attempt to create such database. It includes information about 26 facilities, which can be considered a classical skansen. Problems and deficiencies of Russian skansens are revealed during the creation of the database; opportunities of using the information about ethnomuseums in tourism are considered. The proposed measures are intended to solve the problem of promoting ethnomuseums on domestic tourism market and attract new visitors. On the base of geographical analysis five characteristics of Russian skansens and aspects of their distribution across the country have been identified. It is indicated that the creation of open-air museums in all regional, provincial and republican centers at the local history museums as an extension of their exhibitions is an urgent task. This will expand opportunities for development of domestic tourism in Russia on the ethnic basis that is determined as priority.

Keywords: skansen, open-air museum, history of regional nature-use, skansen as tourism destination, skansens of Russia.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 850 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 72.03(470/1/2)
DOI: 10.12737/14528

Natalya R. Saenko
Russian state University of tourism and service (Moscow, Russia); PhD (Dr.Sc.) in Philosophy, Associate Professor; e-mail: rilke@list.ru


The article reflects the peculiarities of open-air museum expositions in the context of sociocultural changes in the late XX – the early XXI centuries. The authorial understanding of ethnographic, artistic and biographical, historical and military, marginal postmodernist skansens are presented on the basis of which the main transformations occurred with the idea of scansen are shown. From the culturological point of view the answers of a changing museum to the challenges of the changing society are determined. The Historical and architectural-ethnographic museum «Old Sarepta», the State Museum of Sholokhov, the Ground of military equipment of the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War at Poklonnaya Gora, Drvengrad (Serbia) are subjected to a comparative analysis. The detection of skansenological characteristics in absolutely different museums forces to determine skansen as an urgent mode of museum existence at modern times. Skansen is unique by the fact that it offers to a visitor the immersion into several semiotic systems simultaneously.
The creation of skansens and the process of skansenalization of museums of a different type coincided with structural changes in the economics, culture, and social sphere of the XXI century. They became the reflection of the trends of the modern society development in museology. The peculiarities of postmodern society development determine the practical implementation of the ideas of creating a new type of museum – skansen in many ways. Today skansen claims to be autonomous social institutionalization, and its environment and its features are unique. It is not a museum in a classic sense. Skansen is primarily a semantic environment, which offers a visitor to decline the role of a passive spectator and involves people into active production of new objects, meanings, information and their own abilities.

Keywords: museum, open-air museum, skansen, skansenology, interactivity, culturology of a museum.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 743 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.484.2+338.486
DOI: 10.12737/14529

Lyudmila S. Petrik 1 ,  Polina A. Kudryavtseva 2
Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism (Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia);
1  PhD in Economics, Associate Professor; e-mail: petrikls@mail.ru;
2  student; e-mail: polina.kudryavceva.2013@mail.ru


The article presents a project of jailoo-tour in the Mari village. The aspects of the culture and life of ancient Mari are studied. Based on the analysis of natural factors, national characteristics and history of the region the project jailoo-tour is created. Investigations of people’s interest in this tourism product are conducted. The concept of jailoo tour in the Mari village focused on creation of feeling «trip to the past». It includes: infrastructure (estate with adjacent territory – port), the national cuisine (mainly cakes – shergindy, pies – Cogolo, pancakes – Coman melna), the main types of Mari activities (basket weaving, national embroidery, bee-keeping, etc.), national holidays (Shorykyol, Kugeche, Sÿrem, Uginde), and, of course, the representatives of this ethnic group, having sufficient knowledge in culture and history of the Mari El Republic. Tourist complex of Mari village should become a kind of local skansen (ethnographic complex – open-air museum): the tourists could get acquainted with the lifestyle of the Mari people here. The national religion of Mari is the additional factor of attraction tourists. Mari people are the only pagans in Europe, their rituals and sacrifices today are visited by a lot of people.
This work had been accomplished in accordance with the Federal target program «Development of domestic tourism in the Russian Federation (2011–2018)», as well as the Republican target program «Tourism development in the Mari El for 2011–2016». To date, the development of domestic tourism is a priority; significant attention is paid to the development of tourist cluster in the region. In this regard, this project has a chance of being realized.

Keywords: tourism, tourism development, jailoo-tour, Mari El, skansen.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 839 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 911.3:338.483
DOI: 10.12737/14530

Danhaa Enhtayvan 1 ,  Oksana V. Evstropeva 2
1  Institute of Geography MAN; Ph.D. (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia);
2  V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS (Irkutsk, Russia); PhD in Geography, Senior Researcher; e-mail: ledotop@irigs.irk.ru


Mongolia is the unique country in tourist sense. It’s situated in the center of the continent. The distance between the mongolian capital (UlaanBaatar) and the centers of the adjacent states (Russia, China, Kazakhstan) reaches thousands kilometers. Severe sharp continental climate and lack of sea resorts are characteristic for Mongolia. Thus, tourist attractiveness of Mongolia is defined by its natural and cultural exclusiveness. The main principle of tourism development in Mongolia consists in combination of nature-protection and recreational functions of the territories, which are most attractive for tourists. The structure of the tourist arrivals in to country is characterized by considerable prevalence of visitors from neighboring China and Russia. In this regard the development of cross-border tourism became one of the most important directions for the cooperation with adjacent regions. The trans-boundary tourism means the interdependent and coordinated recreational development of the territories that belong to certain cross-border corridors (points of border control). Formation of tourist streams, the centers of border trade and infra - structure depend on their location, status and capacity. The central part of Russian-Mongolian cross-border tourist space is presented by unique natural object – the basin of Baikal Lake. The network of special protected natural areas is dated for it. The role which special protected areas play for Mongolian tourism is illustrated by the example of Hovsgol national park. The developed system of conservation can be considered not only as the most important direction of bilateral cooperation, but also as one of the most important factors of the territorial organization of tourism. Creation of cross-border SPNAs, development of transport infrastructure, giving of the international status to cross-border transitions, and also implementation of the bilateral agreement about the visa-free tourist exchange also promote for development of trans-boundary tourism.

Keywords: Mongolia, Lake Baikal basin, transborder tourism, special protected natural areas, ecotourism.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 1099 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 008.379.85
DOI: 10.12737/14531

Mikhail A. Sarancha 1 ,  Svetlana L. Yakimova 2
1  Russian State University of Tourism and Service (Moscow, Russia); PhD (Dr.Sc.) in Geography, Professor; e-mail: sma77@rambler.ru;
2  Udmurt State University (Izhevsk, Russia); Master’s Degree student; e-mail: 240580svet@mail.ru


Article deals with testing of guide of tourist and excursion routes on the places of national artistic trades and crafts on the base of Moscow and the Moscow region. This study based on application of general scientific and special methods: geoinformatics and cartographycal methods, design, modeling, and others. The inventory of centers of national artistic trades and monitoring of their current use in tourism are made at first stage. Production and art painting pottery, painted trays, manufacture of toys, as well as basket weaving, lace and embroidery are the most common types of national artistic trades. Monitoring revealed a wide range of variation and use of tourist centers in the area; however, they are not optimal for the tourists benefit. All objects are mapped in GIS, including points of possible entrance to route and exit. On the base of it the eight integrated routes are created. They are presented on the map in the form of radial exits from the Moscow. The lines on the map show the route, points – center of national artistic trades. The results of research allowed creating the guide of tourist and excursion routes in specialized software. Several patterns of the guide are presented in the article. The layout includes the following blocks: introduction, route map, description of routes. It consists of 11 pages. The study results can be applied as an information and marketing material, technological project, as well as an example of testing the concept of development of such a product (in the form of an atlas of tourist routes) for all regions of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: atlas, geographical information systems, national artistic trades, route, tourism, excursion.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 826 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 745–338.48:316.422
DOI: 10.12737/14532

Ekaterina V. Katamashvili 1 ,  Victoria V. Katamashvili 2
Socio-educational project «Rainbow Workshop» (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia);
1  marketing & development consultant; e-mail: katvkat@yandex.ru;
2  ASI a member of the Working Group on the elaboration of a road map for development of handicraft in the Russian Federation; e-mail: master-raduga.nnov@yandex.ru


The project «Golden ring of national artistic trades in Nizhny Novgorod» (naming © V. Katamashvili, 2014) is a socio-cultural project, focused on the forming a holistic picture of national artistic trades and positioning them as tourist business card of Nizhny Novgorod region. The project «Golden ring of national artistic trades in Nizhny Novgorod» represents the national artistic trades of Nizhny Novgorod in new modern cultural context by including them in a living space of modern man, prompting interest in traditional folk culture of Nizhny Novgorod region, the desire to get in touch with it. The creation of common socio-cultural space «Golden ring of national artistic trades in Nizhny Novgorod» and its recognition at regional, national and international levels as part of the world's historical and cultural heritage is main goal of the project. Also the creation of a brand on the base of the traditional crafts of Nizhny Novgorod region is proposed in the project.
National artistic trades of Nizhny Novgorod region are positioned in the space of intangible cultural heritage as an innovative tourism product.
Authors believe that innovative approach in conjunction «culture-tourism-territorial branding», based on national artistic trades of Nizhny Novgorod as the unique competitive advantage will allow achieving breakthrough results. The project «Golden ring of national artistic trades in Nizhny Novgorod» initiates a new image of Nizhny Novgorod region. It is a powerful driver of cultural and economic development, tourist and investment attractiveness, recognition and popularity of the region in the country and the world.

Keywords: national artistic trades, Nizhny Novgorod region, brand, tourism product, Golden ring, socio-cultural project.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 756 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 379.85
DOI: 10.12737/14533

Nataliya V. Yakovenko
Voronezh State University (Voronezh, Russia);
PhD (Dr.Sc.) in Geography, Professor; e-mail: n.v.yakovenko71@gmail.com


Cultural tourism is the most dynamically developing direction in the theory and practice of world tourism. Theoretical and methodological understanding of this type of tourist activity causes many debatable moments, from positions both demand and consumption of cultural services. In this regard, the assessment of cultural tourism has to be carried out not only as a type of tourism, as well as the modern innovative technology for tourism development representing: 1) field of consumer tourist activity, 2) special area of business, 3) innovative technology of certain welfare objects development, and directly spheres of culture. Cultural tourism in the total share of the tourism market makes about 25% of total of tourist earnings, and according to forecasts of experts it will only increase. Permanent replenishment and updating of cultural tourism types and forms, and in particular development of national artistic trades which are ubiquitous in the Russian Federation comes from the increase in the number of tourist trips with the cultural and informative purpose. Handicrafts develop small and medium business, and therefore play an increasingly important role in social and economic development of Russia. Considering the fact that not all Russian regions are provided with natural and recreational resources, national artistic trades can act basic, and probably the most innovative industries in the development of the tourism sector, and will help to solve the most acute socially important problems of the depressive region (Ivanovo region), which on a level of development occupies one of the last places in Russia.

Keywords: cultural tourism, depressive region, national artistic trades, Ivanovo region.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 842 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.484.2
DOI: 10.12737/14534

Sergey N. Golubchikov 1,  Evgeny E. Plisetsky 2,  Valeriya Sh. Khetagurova 3
1-2National Research University «Higher School of Economics» (Moscow, Russia); PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: s_golubchikov@mail.ru , evgenie.pliseckij@mail.ru;
3  Russian State Social University (branch in Dedovsk, Russia); PhD in Geography Associate Professor; e-mail: vhetag@yandex.ru


Ethnographic tourism in the modern world, particularly in Russia, in the last decade is relevant, because it allows not only to touch the originins of national culture of own people, but also to learn the culture of other nations. Russia has an extremely ethno-cultural diversity of tourism resources. But they are not sufficiently used as a meaningful kind of tourism that attracts tourists in our country. The Arctic is becoming increasingly attractive for ecological and ethnographic tourism. In the Russian Arctic there are more than 30 small indigenous peoples, they have retained a distinctive culture, knowledge how to survive in extreme environments, the traditional skills of sparing natural resources, the ability to live in harmony with the environment. Ethnographic tourism in the North of Russia is considered one of the most promising. The article presents the materials collected during the trip in the Berezovskiy district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in June 2015, where the authors conducted a survey among the population and government officials about existence and implementation of a program for developing ecological and ethnographic tourism. The way of organization of ethnographic tourism in Berezovsky district was studied; the role of national tribal community (NRA) in this process was determined.
There are 475 traditional territories of indigenous peoples of the North in Yugra. They are able to offer visitors the opportunity to acquaintance with the life and lifestyle of the indigenous population, visiting homes and places of worship and participation in folk rituals, colorful folklore performances, stay in real chum, to go to the camp of reindeer herders, a ride on a reindeer sled, learn the secrets of the national cuisine. The experience of the activities of tourist-ethnographic complex «Sorni Say», which acquaints visitors with the culture of the North, organizes and conducts various activities and programs, manufactures souvenirs, organizes seminars and workshops for arts and crafts is considered.

Keywords: ethnographic tourism, Arctic, indigenous peoples of the North, an ethnographic complex, tribal community, Berezovskiy district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 761 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.48
DOI: 10.12737/14535

Marina E. Komarova
Belgorod State National Research University (Belgorod, Russia) PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: komarova@bsu.edu.ru


The article considers the richness of ethnic and cultural resources of Russia regions, the specificity of the ethnic culture and the possibility of its use in creation the tourist image of the area and the ethnographic tourism development. The increasing of the tourist flow in the central zone of the European part of Russia (Central Federal District) is the most important objective of the tourism sector. Central Federal District has the highest socio-economic indicators, the rich touristic and recreational potential and high level of tourism development. But, as author notes, tourism development in CFD requires the active promotion of ethnic and cultural diversity of the country. Author also highlights the main preconditions for the development of ethnographic tourism.
The definition of ethnographic tourism is specified, its characteristics, types and distinctive features are determined. The recommendations for the development of animation programs ethnographic tours are given. Author pays the attention on the demand for diversification of structure of animation programs ethnographic tourism; its composition have to include various components: folk festivals, history and architecture altogether with the traditions of folk architecture, literary heritage, agriculture, national cuisine, folklore, folk arts and crafts. The author summarized the experience of ethnographic and rural tourism in the Belgorod region and developed a number of conceptual activities to further positioning of ethno-cultural heritage and attract tourists to the region.

Keywords: ethnographic culture, ethnographic tourism, Belgorod region.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 737 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.484.2+338.486
DOI: 10.12737/14534

Lada N. Rozanova 1,  Natalia G. Kulyagina 2,  Alfiya A. Mustafina 3
Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism (Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia);
1 PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: lada-rozanova@rambler.ru;
2 PhD in Economics, Senior Lecturer; e-mail: naadai@mail.ru;
3 PhD in Economics, Associate Professor; e-mail: alfy2506@mail.ru


The article considers the role of ethnographic tourism in the support and development of national artistic trades of the Republic of Tatarstan. The analysis of the development of the tourism industry and infrastructure in the Republic of Tatarstan is carried out; the significance of tourist policy in the Republic and its results is estimated. The potential for the development of ethnographic tourism in the Republic is explored. It includes: folk holidays and other national events, festivals, historical and architectural reserve and museums and other centers of ethnographic tourism Tatar, Russian, Chuvash, Mari, and other peoples that live in the Republic. Much attention is given to the traditional national artistic trades of the Republic: a mosaic of leather and fur, leather and painted lettering, embroidery; gold embroidery, beadwork; applications; lace products; art processing of wood and other plant materials, production of artistic ceramics and silver jewelry and others. Special focus is on measures to revive the lost species and endangered national artistic trades of the peoples of Tatarstan.
A number of problems of national artistic trades of Tatarstan are revealed. Among them: a complicated financial and economic situation, higher depreciation and obsolescence of the technical base, decline in demand for authentic art works, forgery and production of low quality, as well as fragmentation of masters, duplication of similar products, the aging masters folk arts and crafts and the threat of loss of artistic and stylistic peculiarities and traditions. It noted that ethnograhic tourism has a tremendous impact on support and development of national artistic trades in the Republic.

Keywords: ethnographic tourism, national artistic trades, national customs and traditions, Tatarstan.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 763 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 379.85
DOI: 10.12737/14537

Rafik G. Mudarisov 1 ,  Anton D. Kobitev 2
Kazan National Research Technological University (Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia);
1  PhD in Biology, Associate Professor; e-mail: raffikk@mail.ru;
2  student


The article is devoted to different issues of organization of tatar national gastronomic tourism in Kazan city for independent travelers, entering the city. The main problems and possibilities for further development in service industry, which represents national cuisine for citizens and tourists in general, are revealed. Among them – the problem of the lack of café and restaurant networks connected with tatar cuisine and its identity and originality; tourists even don’t have the opportunity to enjoy national interior, service quality, colouring, music and atmosphere. Researches of gastronomic tourism in the Republic of Tatarstan are relevant, because in Russia at the moment more and more people understand the prospects of gastronomic destinations of tourist business. So far in our country it is quite rare, this type of tourism is in its infancy and is found only as part of a larger tour program. The need of development of new types of tourism such as gastronomic for attraction of tourists is also caused the relevance of research. All this is necessary for the further development of Republic of Tatarstan.
According to the research results, there is a significant lack of restaurants with national Tatar cuisine, national interior design, music and color in general in the Republic of Tatarstan, and in particular, in Kazan.

Keywords: gastronomic tourism, Tatar national cuisine, tourism organization, problems and prospects of tourism activities, Tatarstan.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 771 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 398.332.12(477)
DOI: 10.12737/14538

Viktor N. Tkachenko
National historical-ethnographic reserve «Pereyaslav» (Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky, Kiev region, Ukraine); PhD in History, Scientific Secretary; e-mail: viktor_tkachenko@ukr.net


The article is devoted to painting of Easter eggs (pisanki) in Ukraine – a kind of national artistic trades. Research is based on study of archival scientific funds of manuscripts and phonorecording of the Rylsky Institute of Art History, Folklore Studies and Ethnology under NAS.
The author analyzed and published the various funds from Archives. It was found that among others, the materials with the information about the manufacture of Easter eggs – pisanki, as well as their use in rituals and beliefs of the Ukrainians is stored. Among them – the materials not only from all regions of Ukraine, but also from Russia (in particular, the information from the Yaroslavl Province have been studied). Author certifies the existence of Easter eggs in different regions of the country.
The article considers the messages from ethnographic regions of Ukraine – Carpathians, Podlasie, Boikovsina, Zhytomyr region, Lviv region, Vinnitsa region, and Chernigov region. The author had processed personal funds of E. Spassky, P. Litvinova, Vl. Kravchenko, G. Tantsyura and materials of M. Sumtsov, L. Demian and other researchers that are stored in different funds.
Researched documents allow distinguishing the following groups of sources: epistolary, handwritten, printed, and illustrative. It greatly enriches source studies base of Ukrainian painting of Easter eggs of the twentieth century as the kind national artistic trades.

Keywords: archive, storage units, techniques of making, regional peculiarities, Easter eggs (pisanka), Easter.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 724 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 72.03(470/1/2)
DOI: 10.12737/14539

Olga V. Zaharova
State unitary enterprise «Administrative Directorate for the management of the Sverdlovsk region» (Ekaterinburg, Russia); Deputy Director for commercial Affairs; e-mail: zaharova@rdmugiso.ru


The article describes the history of establishment and development of Sysert Porcelain Factory, which is a unique place of manufacture of highly artistic products. Article discovers the information about the artist inspirer of the plant – outstanding Ural writer Pavel Bazhov. The series of sculptures, «Mistress of Copper Mountain», «Danila-Master», «Golden Hair» and others have been issued on the basis of his tales.
Description of the manufacturing process of porcelain and works of leading artisans and artists helps to evaluate the exclusivity of products. The article reflects issues related to the preservation techniques of porcelain production, transfer the skills and abilities of hand painted art.
To this day Sysert Porcelain Factory supports the best traditions of the Ural national artistic trades. New raw materials allow improving the whiteness and translucency of porcelain to the level of the world standards, and the new generation of artists and technologists makes fresh direction in the development of traditional handicraft.
Products «Porcelain Sysert» gained popularity, both in Russia and abroad. Production of the plant loved by customers for its impeccable quality that is achievable only in the manual version, whiteness of porcelain, respect to the traditions and at the same time a sense of modernity.
It is important that Sysert Porcelain Factory preserves and develops the traditions of folk art of the Urals the XIX–XX centuries. Artists and craftsmen create artistic porcelain as a domestic destination – tea and coffee sets, dining sets and individual items and as small series and single items for decorative purposes – vases, boxes, gifts, intended to decorate various interiors.

Keywords: porcelain, Sysert, art painting, the tales of Bazhov, sculptural products, souvenirs.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 758 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 74.01/.09
DOI: 10.12737/14541

Nadezhda N. Menchikova
Kirov city branch of the Russia creative public organization «Union of Russian Artists» (Kirov, Russia); Chairman of the Board; e-mail: dymkatoycxp@mail.ru


The article is devoted to the well-known traditional craft of Vyatka – Dymkovo toys collected in the museum’s fine collection «Dymkovo Toys: Past and Present». The article discloses aspects of the origin, development and current state of the craft, describes the historical changes in technique of production the toys. The role in the development and preservation of individual craft of masters and devotees is characterized. The article is illustrated by vivid examples of craft products. The rare archival photographs are given in the work. The historical process of the appearance of the craft of production of Dymkovo toys is described. Special attention is paid to the history and characteristics of the museum’s collection, as well as forms of work with visitors – sightseers and tourists of all ages. Today the museum’s collection works not only for dwellers of Kirov, but also for the whole prestige of the Kirov region. It promotes the development of tourism, and forms the special tourist brand of the region – «The Land of Dymkovo toys».

Keywords: national artistic trade, Dymkovo toys, excursions, Kirov region, Vyatka Land.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 767 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 74.01/.09
DOI: 10.12737/14540

Anna V. Kuznetsova 1 ,  Olga L. Tetenkina 2
Vyatka State University (Kirov, Russia);
1  Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor; e-mail: av_kuznecova@vyatsu.ru;
2  Assistant; e-mail: tetenkina@vyatsu.ru


The article deals with the territorial branding and defining elements of urban identity, which enhances the touristical potential and the attractiveness of the territory. Identity is a tool of communication in the territorial marketing. The correct choice of the main element of identity plays a role in shaping the ideas of territory of residents and tourists. The authors propose to use the craft or crafts as a basic element of urban identity. National artistic trades, particularly Dymkovo toys as an element of identity of Kirov, are the subject of the study. The priority of the use crafts as an element of identity of the city or territory is justified. The article presents a synthesis of the experience of Kirov in the formation of its identity on the basis of national artistic trades. The authors describe the history of the emergence and development of the most famous folk art in the Kirov region – Dymkovo toys. Today Dymkovo toys is not only a craft, but also an element of the communication environment. It has been used in the project of the Government of the Kirov region «Buy the Vyatsky products!» as an element that helps customers in choosing the products of local manufacturers. The action «Paint the town in Dymka» became the most popular in the urban environment of Kirov. The townspeople accepted an emotional image of the Dymka as an element visualization hometown. This is confirmed by sociological surveys. The authors draw attention to the fact that Dymka can be used as a basic element in building and maintaining the identity of Kirov, creating a welcoming and joyful image of the territory.

Keywords: identity, territorial branding, national artistic trades, crafts, tourist attraction, urban identity, Kirov, Dymkovo toys, Dymka.

2015_04 | Просмотров: 757 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.482.22
DOI: 10.12737/12876

Vladimir Andrianov
Expert Council on legislation in the sphere of tourism of the State Duma Committee on Economic Policy, innovation and Entrepreneurship Development, member of the National Academy of Tourism (Belgorod, Russia); e-mail: avi1919@mail.ru


The article analyzes the place and role domestic and inbound tourism in the current development of Russia. According to the World Tourism Organization, domestic tourism has two forms – internal national and international inbound tourism. But the world theoretical concepts have shifted ahead much from such a simplified understanding of the functional structure of domestic tourism. The current trend is the transition to a well-planned and organized model of domestic tourism development from the simple promotion of inbound tourism to focused strategy of its planning at the national policy level. In Korea, such direction has been named «Intrabound tourism». In Russia, however, the importance and necessity of development of inbound and domestic tourism, attracting foreign tourists are still being discussed at all levels, but any significant measures and effective programs was not implemented, and those that accepted, for the most part ineffective. Ignoring the problems of inbound and domestic tourism consist in primarily orientation of the current normative and law framework «on outbound operator». And even in a new project of Amendments into the Law «About bases of tourist activity» can’t to completely move away from this vector.
The survey of experts working directly in the tourism industry of the Central Federal District allows to identify the nine problems of development domestic and inbound tourism, common to each region. They are described in detail in the article. Also substantial list of major events, a comprehensive approach to the implementation of which will in the foreseeable future significantly improve sphere of domestic tourism in the Central Russia is offered. The need to develop a system of state regulation and support of tourist activity should be noted as the most important recommendations for the development of tourism in the Central Federal District.

Keywords: internal tourism, inbound tourism, problems of tourism development, recommendations for the development of tourism.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 888 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 914/919+379.84
DOI: 10.12737/12877

Iuriy Golubchikov
Lomonosov Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia); PhD in Geography; e-mail: golubchikov@list.ru


Contrary to popular ideas about the destruction of environment of Russia, almost half of its spaces are not burdened by anthropogenic or technogenic impact. Russia owns 15% of almost untouched by human activity Earth’s land. Geographically the country is close to all the most powerful and the most populous states in Western Europe, Asia and America. And demand for travel and vacation in underpopulated and clean environment there constantly growing, landscape tourism, nature and holistic therapy are getting the larger popularity. The global role of Russia lies in the fact that it can be positioned and percepted as a kind of biosphere-therapeutic reserve. The geopolitical, ideological, economic, image significance of rural and farmstead tourism are justified in the article.
The construction of a positive image of the territory should be from correction of curriculums geographical, humanitarian and tourist specialties in higher educational establishments. None significant foreign university can be represented without human-geographical understanding of resources of its country. We have nothing like this, and if it planned, so only in the historical and archival manner. Meanwhile, the revival of studies of Russia allows not only expanding the philosophical and substantive field of recreational geography, but also improving the overall competitiveness of the country in the fields of tourism services.

Keywords: rural tourism, studies of Russia, image promotion, geography, ideology.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 902 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 332.12
DOI: 10.12737/12878

Adriana Medyanik
Taras Shevchenko Luhansk University (Luhansk, Ukraine);
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor; e-mail: adrianamedyanik@yandex.ru


A requirement for sustainable development of regional social systems is the application of marketing management, which presumes activities related to the planning, organization, coordination, monitoring and promotion of measures to formation demand for the products of the region.
Transformation processes, taking place recently in the socio-economic sphere of all post-Soviet countries, to a large extent touched the recreational complex in the whole and in specific regions. Considering the significant role played by recreational complex in the national economy, its value for economic and social development of the any state and its regions, the need to development and implement of the system of regional recreational system marketing management gets the largest relevance in theoretical and practical aspects.
Recreational areas are the special object of research in the elaboration of strategic programs of development of the territory or region. Territorial development is determined by the types and modes of primary use, the location of the material objects, the spatial structure of the region. It is possible to achieve the territorial development by the implementation of local economic policy, using the resource potential of the territory, taking into account the influence of internal and external factors in the development of the region, as well as through inter-regional and cross-border cooperation.
In accordance with the existing objective and subjective conditions, use of «Public Relations» and branding elements have become one of the primary tools of marketing management of regional recreational systems development. In the process of using these tools is important to optimally combine social spending on health and recreation with the economic benefit of the region.

Keywords: region, recreational resources, marketing management, competitive advantage strategy.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 845 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 339.138
DOI: 10.12737/12879

Mariyam Arpentieva
K. Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University (Kaluga, Russia); PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor; e-mail: mariam_rav@mail.ru


The article is devoted to theoretical issues of branding and re-branding of territories as a component of the development of the tourism industry. The origin and development of studies of the branding and destination marketing at tourism as a holistic system of Sciences about tourism and tourist activities are examined. The concepts of definitions «place branding» and «marketing of territories» and the relationship between them are analyzed. The author notes that the re-branding of territories and foresight designing of tourism are important components of modern tourism. Geobranding as an activity involves several components: the development and implementation of program changes and property promotion, investment attraction, tourists, the restructuring of relations between the population and institutions of the territory, the organization and transformation of the communications site and its representatives with representatives of other regions. Branding is considered as a procedure to establish lasting and profound positive relations of the region with other regions on the base of exclusivity and productivity. To achieve these goals, branding involves analyze of the characteristics of the region in diachronic and synchronic perspectives, in the past, future and present, in the lives of different layers and strata of the region, the various sectors and clusters. It is proposed to distinguish the archetypal (the conceptualization and development of the basic archetypes of the territory) and narrative (understanding and develop stories) branding. Special attention is given to event branding, its role in the actualization of the other components of branding, as well as the ratio of the purposes of branding and identity of the territories and population. The stages, dimensions, features, problems and prospects of rebranding and branding within the scientific tourism and tourism practices are examined.

Keywords: tourism, geobranding, geomarketing, rebranding, event branding, narrative branding, archetypal branding.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 943 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.48
DOI: 10.12737/12880

Dmitry Tsapuk
K. Ushinskiy Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University (Yaroslavl, Russia);
PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: dtsapuk@yandex.ru


Article is devoted to the analysis of the experience of creation and the implementation of major investment, cluster and interregional projects in the field of tourism in the Central Federal district. This analysis has been carried out on the basis of developed by the author in 2012 the Report to the meeting of Council at the Plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in the Central Federal district «About the state of the tourism industry in the regions of Central Federal district» and on the contemporary sources. The availability and the key parameters of large-scale investment projects in the tourism sector in the regions of the Central Federal District are considered. The conclusion about high economic potential of the tourist industry and significant investor interest in this segment of the economy is drawn.
Part of the developed in 2012 major investment projects have been included in the new edition of the federal target program, and part of them are pass hearing in the Coordinating Council of the federal target program. Due to the opportunities and experience of participation in the federal program the quantity and quality of developed investment projects and cluster regional projects have increased significantly in recent years. It is noted that creation of tourism clusters in CFD will promote to saving of historical and culture objects, developing of new tourist routs, revealing of Russian traditions, as well as support and development of Russian Orthodox culture, forming favorable environment for the growth of small and medium-sized businesses, offering a wide range of tourist products, both in composition and price. The projects of interregional cooperation and the experience of creating interregional tourist routes and products in the Central Federal District are another important aspect of stimulation the of tourism development.

Keywords: regions of the Central Federal District, tourism development, investment projects, cluster and inter-regional projects, Federal target program, tourism routes, tourism products.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 868 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.484.2+338.486
DOI: 10.12737/12881

Lada Rozanova 1,   Maria Vesloguzova 2,  Ljudmila Petrik 3
Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism (Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia);
1 PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: lada-rozanova@rambler.ru;
2 PhD in Economics, Associate Professor; e-mail: mariaves@mail.ru;
3 PhD in Economics, Associate Professor; e-mail: petrikls@mail.ru


This article characterized the territorial socio-ecological-economic system, reveals the essence and sources of fuzziness of socio-ecological-economic processes and objects in the service sector, as well as approaches to their evaluation. The aim of the study is to reveal the nature of socio-ecological-economic systems, the disclosure of the nature, dynamics, level of mobility, interaction algorithms, the state of uncertainty and fuzziness of socio-ecological-economic processes and facilities.
To achieve this goal, authors used the method of uncertain sets and algorithms L. Zadeh, based on the concept of the appurtenance function µ(x), which characterizes the degree of dependence of element «x» with specific vague set. In this initial position is accepted that the task of decision making in situations of uncertainty (including assessment tasks) in principle cannot be reduced to a strictly mathematical tasks. For this it is necessary to eliminate or reduce the uncertainty by introducing certain hypotheses, for example, in the form of the appurtenance function of fuzzy set or uncertain relationship. In evaluation of the areas it means that this procedure may not have the character of fully formal logical algorithm, and should rely heavily on logic-meaningful approaches and techniques of analysis.
In the analysis authors appeal to informal and semi-formal research apparatus, the base of which constituted the systematic and synergetic communicative techniques and methods of the theory of expert evaluations of fuzzy set theory and the theory of trade-offs that allowed to formulate the definition of social, ecological and economic systems, characterize approaches to evaluation of these systems within the theory of fuzzy sets and making trade-offs, determine the estimation algorithm noted systems.

Keywords: socio-ecological-economic systems, fuzziness of information, evaluation of socio-ecological-economic systems.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 876 | Дата: 09.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.46
DOI: 10.12737/12882

Аlexander Fedulin 1,   Yuriy Kopylov 2,  Oleg Afanasiev 3
Russian State University of Tourism and Service (Moscow, Russia);
1 PhD (Dr.Sc.) in History, Professor; e-mail: rector.06@mail.ru;
2 PhD in History, Associate Professor; e-mail: ykopylov@live.ru;
3 PhD (Dr.Sc.) in Geography, Professor; e-mail: editor@spst-journal.org


The development Program project of road transport and tourism infrastructure «The roads of Power’s Soul» is presented in the article. The program was developed by the Coordinating Council for the development of tourism in the Central Federal District (СFD) of the Association of interregional social and economic interaction «Central Federal District» and the Russian State University of Tourism and Service.
The urgency of the creation of generalizing, integral tourism and tourist services development programs for all regions of the CFD is justified in the article.
It was noted that tourism is the rapidly growing sector of the economy CFD. But comprehensive solution of issues related to creation of the new tourism products cannot be provided by the only development of the infrastructure. This hinders the development of effective promotion tools, introduction of innovative technologies, staff training in the tourism and service of district. The creation of a unified tourism space is the one of the main directions of the tourism sector development in the Central Federal District.
Such approach can only be implemented within a unified inter-regional program of tourism development in district and creating a tourist cluster with the active participation of each subject of the CFD.
The program development project of road transport and tourism infrastructure in 2015 – 2025 is proposed in the article. The goals, objectives, stages, outcomes of the program are defined. The scheme of the complex federal automobile segmented tourist ring route through the territory of all the regions – subjects of the CFD is proposed. The main results of a comprehensive analysis of tourist routs, facilities and activities recommended for inclusion in the program are represented. The criteria for selection of destinations and also companies and organizations of tourism infrastructure for inclusion in the Program are substantiated. It is concluded that practical implementation of developed Program is very important; it might be very effective for the tourism development in the Central Federal District and Russia as a whole.

Keywords: autotransport tourism infrastructure, «The roads of Power’s Soul», roadside service, the Central Federal District, program project.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 896 | Дата: 10.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 338.48
DOI: 10.12737/12883

Matvey Oborin
Perm institute (branch) of G. Plekhanov REU (Perm, Russia); PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: recreachin@rambler.ru


Central Federal District is the leader in number of the coming tourists and day trippers among other regions of Russia. The most perspective directions of tourist and recreational activity here are cultural and informative and health and fitness tourism. Sanatorium and resort services mostly form a basis of health and fitness tourism that is connected with its high role for social and economic development of the region. The central Russia has high natural and medical potential for the organization and further development of sanatorium and resort activity. The medical base is presented by hydromineral resources (mineral waters of external and drinking application), climatic and landscape conditions of territory. Special factors of development of health and fitness tourism are social and economic features of the region – low birth rate, negative natural increase, the increase in the proportion of morbidity, income growth, and others. All this forms a necessary domestic demand for the organization sanatorium and resort activities in the Central Federal District. It is characterized by a large number of contradictory trends which weaken its general development. In Central Federal District the increase in quantity of collective means of placement due to opening of hotels, hostels, locations of tourists is observed. Their general dynamics grew more than twice that is connected with increase in a tourist flow of recreants. At the same time there are such negative tendencies of development of recreational sphere of the region as reduction of the children’s wellness organizations and tourist flow of children, reduction the number of sanatorium organizations. Accordingly, it is accompanied by a reduction numbers of beds and the flow placed persons.
The observed trends are due to the increased of cost of sanatorium and resort vouchers, low level of infrastructure development, low quality of services, lack of competitiveness of the modern sanatorium and resort complex.

Keywords: resort and recreational potential, sanatorium and resort services, health and fitness tourism, resort, regional economy.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 885 | Дата: 10.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)


UDC 379.854
DOI: 10.12737/12884

Alexander Ermakov 1,   Moorman Kokhreidze 2,  Daniel Cherepanov 3
1 Russian State University of Tourism and Service (Moscow, Russia); Ph.D. in Technology, Associate Professor; e-mail: tkei2011@yandex.ru;
2 Moscow State Forest University (Moscow, Russia); Ph.D. in Technology, Associate Professor; e-mail: kohreidze-murman@mail.ru;
3 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (Moscow, Russia); Engineer; e-mail: supfear@yandex.ru


The main problems of implementation of event tourism in the Central Federal District (CFD), which primarily include short-term scale, the placing on the natural areas, the lack of in sufficient degree of accommodation and tourist services and style of carrying out of actions etc., are considered. The improvement of the quality of the event tourism are proposed to accomplish through the overall coordination in activities, use of the tourist information centers, establishment of a common organization of the enterprise for the hospitality industry event tourism CFD, equipping its engineering resources in the form of mobile homes of various technological purpose creating a culture and a new style of event tourism, taking into account the basic principles of sustainable tourism development, the formation of its legal and technical support and so on. Mobile homes, awareness of tourists and organization of activities allows to reduce the human impacts on the local natural landscapes of natural areas at the venue of event tourism. A new culture, style, organization and conditions of the event tourism activities will make it more appealing to a wider audience of tourists, not only in our country, but also for tourists from abroad.

Keywords: event tourism, camping, mobile home, event calendar.

2015_03 | Просмотров: 895 | Дата: 10.01.2016 | Комментарии (0)