Higher School of Economics and Business of Crimean Federal University named after
V.I. Vernadsky, Department of Social and Socio-Economic Sciences (Simferopol, Crimea);
PhD in History, Associate Professor; e-mail: email@example.com
TOURIST SERVICE IN CRIMEA OVER OF SOVIET PERIOD: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
In the article the author analyzed the basic problems of Crimean tourist service in 1960s–1980s. For this period the maximal numbers of visiting Crimea by domestic and foreign tourists were achieved, a lot of them negatively estimated the quality of local service. On the basis of wide complex of the archived and published historical sources the author proves that the permanent problems of the tourist service were conditioned above all by the institutional model of organization of the soviet industry of hospitality, which was characterized by excessive centralization, monopolization, administrative-command methods of decision-making, low staff motivation. Thus all this complex of problems showed up both during servicing of soviet tourists (Crimean Regional Council for Tourism and Excursions) and unorganized holidaymakers (socalled «wild tourists»), as well as serving foreign tourists (the enterprise system «Intourist» in the Crimea).
The considerable negative influence was related to the fact that development of sphere of services (including tourism) was not a priority direction for authorities of the USSR. The centralized allocation of funds and material resources for the hospitality industry often carried out as a residual. However, since the second half of the 1970s the particular activities directed at «conservative modernization» of the Soviet tourist service were carried out. These activities were directed at increasing economic independence of enterprises of industry of hospitality, activation of supplying of additional services to the tourists, growing of material motivation of service workers. But until the late 1980s these transformations were implemented very slowly and conservatively, without affecting the fundamental bases of the soviet planned economy and administrative-command management.
Despite the fact that at the present stage market and competitive model of organization of the service is established, the Soviet past continues to indirectly affect the quality of the Crimean tourist product, but the significance of this influence is waning.
Keywords: tourism, service, industry of hospitality, administrative-command management, planned economy, the Crimea.