Per Stromberg 1 , Alexandra V. Trotsenko 2
1 Telemark University College (Bo, Norway); PhD, Associate Professor; e-mail: email@example.com
2 Oles’ Honchar Dnepropetrovsk National University (Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine); PhD in Geography, Associate Professor; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
THE CONCEPT OF SKANSEN: ORIGINS AND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
The article discusses the development a special type of museums in Europe – open-air museums. Such institutions named «skansen» in honor of the first open-air museum, which opened in 1891 in Stockholm at the initiative of Arthur Hazelius. The five historical stages in the history of European skansens are offered to distinguish: 1) origin of the idea and the opening of the first skansen (up to 1891); 2) the establishment of skansen (from 1891 until the First World War); 3) Inter-War Period (the period between the First and Second World Wars); 4) Post-war reconstruction (up to about 1960); 5) Development of skansen as a scientific-research institution and tourism center (from 1960s until today). Each of the selected stage is characterized by its process of deepening and expansion of activity of skansens as special kind of museum establishments. Museums change according to the era and social requires. Skansen emerged in response to the disappearance of the traditional economic system and national culture under the influence of the processes of industrialization and globalization. Today skansen is the effective means of translation to new generations an appropriate national historical and cultural identity, traditional way of life of the people. Skansen (open-air museums) is important tool of intercultural and inter-civilizational dialogue. Such museums are also a means of communication, which able to withstand to many cliches and misconceptions imposed by the mass culture. Today the organization of open-air museums is one of the most promising and effective ways to preserve historical and cultural heritage. This type of museum has got status of «museum of the future». The article briefly discusses the most interesting and popular open-air museums as tourist destinations of the Nordic countries.
Keywords: skansen, open-air museum, stages of the development of European skansens.