Home » Ad Board » 2016 » 2016_04

09.12.2017, 01:50

Russian

UDC 94(470)«1960/1980»:339.9
DOI: 10.22412/1995-0411-2016-10-4-102-114

Aleksey D. POPOV
V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (Simferopol, Rep. of Crimea, Russia);
PhD in History, Associate Professor; e-mail: popalex79@mail.ru


"SOVIET RIVERA": RECREATION TOURISM OF FOREIGN CITIZENS ON THE BLACK SEA COAST OF THE USSR IN THE 1960–1980-ies


The article is devoted to defining the role of the largest soviet resorts of the Black sea – Sochi and Yalta in the development of international tourism in the USSR during the post-war period. These tourism centers occupied leading positions in receiving foreign tourists, yielding only to Moscow and Leningrad. The author analyzes the main types of tourism that were typical for Sochi and Yalta, dynamics and structure of tourist flows, the state of the tourist infrastructure, the specifics of the ideological work with voyagers from abroad. The guide-translator of "Intourist" was the main figure, who directly carried out ideological work with foreign tourists. The vividly expressed seasonality of international tourism was an important problem of its development in the region.
In the mid-1950s and the first half of the 1970s the development of services for foreign cruise ships had huge value for the structural subdivisions of "Intourist" in Sochi and Yalta. After inputting in exploitation large hotel complexes of "Intourist" in the 1970s on the black sea coast the share of cruise tourism began to decline, but remained significant until the collapse of the Soviet Union. In addition, the expansion and modernization of tourist infrastructure of Sochi and Yalta in the 1970s allowed more actively to promote recreation tours not only on a summer period, but also in cold seasons. Tourists from Western and Eastern Germany, Finland, Czechoslovakia were their main customers. At the same time, the development of specialized medical tourism for foreign citizens on the coast of the Caucasus and Crimea, which at that time was called the "all-Union health resorts", did not receive wide distribution.
The publication was prepared within the framework of a research project №16-41-93578 supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities.

Keywords: international tourism, “Intourist”, recreation, service, sea cruise, ideology, Sochi, Yalta, "Soviet Rivera".


References 

1. Braginskij, V. M. (1987). Struktura perestrojki inostrannogo turizma v SSSR v svete izmenenija haraktera turistskogo sprosa [The structure of rebuilding foreign tourism in the Soviet Union in the light of the changing nature of tourism demand]. Razvitie inostrannogo turizma v uslovijah intensifikacii obshhestvennogo proizvodstva v SSSR [The development of foreign tourism in the conditions of an intensification of social production in the USSR]: Coll. scientific. works. Moscow, Avangard. (In Russ.).
2. Vagapov, M. (1960). Opisanie avtomobil'noj ekskursii po Bol'shoj Jalte na temu «Jalta – odin iz krupnejshih kurortov Sovetskogo Sojuza» [Description of automobile tour across the Big Yalta on theme "Yalta – one of the largest resorts in the Soviet Union"]. Мoscow. (In Russ.).
3. Ivanova, L. M., Men'shikova, L. Yu., Murashhenko, L. V., & Cygannik, L. I. (2007). Gostinica "Oreanda" [Hotel "Oreanda"]. Simferopol: ChernomorPRESS. (In Russ.).
4. Gus'kov, P. Z. (1974). Za zdorov'em v SSSR [To the USSR for health]. Puteshestvie v SSSR [Travel to Soviet Union], (3), 1-2. (In Russ.).
5. Druzhbinskaja, S. (1973). Znakom'tes': "Zhemchuzhina" [Meet the "Pearl"]. Puteshestvie v SSSR [Travel to Soviet Union], (4), 13. (In Russ.).
6. Kasatkin, V. F. (1973). Geografija inostrannogo turizma v SSSR [Geography of foreign tourism in the USSR]. Moscow, Avangard. (In Russ.).
7. (1976). Metodicheskie ukazanija i razvernutyj plan ekskursij po gorodu na temu “Sochi – vsesojuznaja zdravnica” [Guidelines and detailed plan of tour around the city on theme "Sochi – All-Union health resort"]. Sochi.
8. Oksanen, A.-M. (1986). V Jaltu – kazhdyj god [To Yalta – every year]. Puteshestvie v SSSR [Travel to Soviet Union], (4), 37. (In Russ.).
9. Orlov, I. B. (2009). Sovetskij kurort 1930-h godov: na “eksport” i dlja vnutrennego pol'zovanija [Soviet Health Resort of 1930‑s: for Exports and for Residents]. Sovremennye problemy servisa i turizma [Service and Tourism: Current Challenges], 3(3), 25-30. (In Russ.).
10. Pershman, K. (1987). “Eto bylo chudesnoe vremja” ["It was a wonderful time"]. Puteshestvie v SSSR [Travel to Soviet Union], (2), 38. (In Russ.).
11. Popov, A. D. (2007). Kraj drevnih razvalin i novyh sanatoriev: dejatel'nost' “Inturista” v Krymskoj ASSR (1931–1941 gg.) [The Land of the ancient ruins and new resorts: the activities of "Intourist" in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1931–1941)]. Vestnik Assotsiatsii vuzov turizma i servisa [Universities for Tourism and Service Association Bulletin], (2), 111-115. (In Russ.).
12. Popov, A. D. (2015). Turistskij servis v Krymu sovetskogo perioda: problemy i reshenija [Tourist service in Crimea over of Soviet period: problems and solutions]. Sovremennye problemy servisa i turizma [Service and Tourism: Current Challenges], 9(1), 34-43. doi: 10.12737/7911. (In Russ.).
13. (1991). Rossija ostaetsja naibolee poseshhaemoj respublikoj SSSR [Russia remains the most visited Soviet republics]. Bjulleten' turistskoj informacii [Bulletin of Tourism Information], (2), 7. (In Russ.).
14. Ryzhkova, R., & Grushko, S. (1997). Razvitie inostrannogo turizma v gorode Sochi (1954–1987 gody) [Development of foreign tourism in Sochi (1954–1987)]. Sochi. (In Russ.).
15. Semenova, S. (1971). Derevo druzhby [Tree of Friendship]. Puteshestvie v SSSR [Travel to Soviet Union], (3), 18-19. (In Russ.).
16. Bagdasaryan, V. E., Orlov, I. B., Shnaydgen, J. J., Fedulin, A. A., & Mazin, K. A. (2011). Sovetskoe zazerkal'e. Inostrannyj turizm v SSSR v 1930–1980-e gody [Soviet Union behind the mirror. Foreign tourism in USSR in 1930-1980]. Moscow, FORUM. (In Russ.).
17. Starchevskij, V. I. (1980). Informacionno-propagandistskaja rabota gida-perevodchika (vvodnyj kurs) [Advocacy of a guide-interpreter (introductory course)]. Мoscow. (In Russ.).
18. Shal'nov, V. (1973). Zima na more! [Winter on the sea!]. Puteshestvie v SSSR [Travel to Soviet Union], (5), 23. (In Russ.).
19. Arefyev, V., & Mieczkowski, Z. (1991). International Tourism In The Soviet Union I n The Era Of Glasnost And Perestroyka. Journal of Travel Research, 29(4), 2-6. doi:10.1177/004728759102900401.
20. Heeke, M. (2003). Reisen zu den Sowjets: Der ausländische Tourismus in Russland 1921-1941 ; mit einem bio-bibliographischen Anhang zu 96 deutschen Reiseautoren. Münster: Lit.
21. Koenker, D. P. (2009). Whose Right to Rest? Contesting the Family Vacation in the Postwar Soviet Union. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51(02), 401. doi:10.1017/s0010417509000176.
22. Koenker, D. (2013). Club Red: Vacation Travel and the Soviet Dream. Cornell University Press.
23. Noack, C. (2006). Coping with the Tourist. Planned and “Wild” Mass Tourism on the Soviet Black Sea Coast. Turizm: The Russian and East European Tourist under Capitalism and Socialism. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 281-304.
24. Salmon, S. (2006). Marketing Socialism: “Intourist” in the Late 1950s and 1960s. Turizm: The Russian and East European Tourist under Capitalism and Socialism. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 186-204.
25. (1976). "Winterbaden" in Sotschi. Das neue Handwerk, 22 Juli.


Bibliographic description 

  • Popov, A. D.  (2016). «Soviet Rivera»: recreation tourism of foreign citizens on the Black sea coast of the USSR in the 1960–1980-ies. Sovremennye problemy servisa i turizma [Service and Tourism: Current Challenges], 10(4), 102-114. doi: 10.22412/1995-0411-2016-10-4-102-114 (In Russ.). 

Views: 54
Total comments: 0
avatar